The Hern Family

Making Hard Decisions: Running Away

If you were enslaved at Monticello, would you have run away? Explore this and other challenges faced by Monticello's slaves.

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Felling Ax.
Thomas Jefferson Foundation
Cactoctin greenstone.
Thomas Jefferson Foundation
Axle Hub.
Thomas Jefferson Foundation
Wheel jack fragment.
Thomas Jefferson Foundation
Charcoal recovered by Monticello archaeologists.
Thomas Jefferson Foundation
Gun parts. Clockwise from top: lockplate, gunflint, trigger, lead ball shot, and frizzen.
Thomas Jefferson Foundation

The story of David and Isabel Hern illustrates the strength of the African American family within an institution that constantly threatened family unity. Although slave marriage was illegal in Virginia, enduring unions were the norm at Monticello. The Herns, whose marriage lasted until Isabel’s death in 1819, had 12 children. Sons Moses and James married “abroad” (off the Monticello plantation) and persuaded Jefferson to buy their wives so they could live together.

David Hern Sr. performed a multitude of tasks in his 50 years at Monticello.  He was a skilled woodworker and wheelwright. As a carpenter, he built cabins and fences on the plantation, and also worked on the Monticello house. When Jefferson constructed his mill on the south side of the Rivanna River, David Hern Sr. and other enslaved workmen blasted the greenstone with gunpowder to create a canal to feed water to the mill. Jefferson considered him one of the “best hands” to blast rock.

David Hern Jr., a wagoner, made regular solo trips to transport goods between Monticello and Washington during Jefferson’s presidency. He was able to visit his wife, Frances Gillette Hern, an apprentice cook in the White House kitchen. Other male slaves, including Elizabeth Hemings’s sons Robert and Martin, periodically traveled and worked away from Monticello. Even with this level of autonomy, family bonds led enslaved men to keep returning to Monticello.

After Jefferson’s death, David Hern and his 34 surviving children and grandchildren were sold.


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